Indeed, psychologists have long known that, from the very first weeks of life, children are able to distinguish between Mom and Dad and respond differently to their different ways of parenting.  Children in fact bond strongly with both parents almost before they do anything else.  And later, children come to see parents for what they are – discharging different roles, but equally important to them. (Source)


  • Linda Nielsen has summarized 60 studies in 3 of her papers, one of which is: Nielsen, Joint versus sole physical custody: Children’s outcomes independent of parent-child relationships, income and conflict in 60 studies.  Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 2018, 247-281. For copies of these papers, contact
  • Social Science and Parenting Plans for Young Children: A Consensus Report – Richard A. Warshak 
  • Should Infants and Toddlers Have Frequent Overnight Parenting Time With Fathers? The Policy Debate and New Data – William V. Fabricius and Go Woon Suh 
  • Arguments for an Equal Parental Responsibility Presumption in Contested Child Custody – Dr. Edward Kruk
  • Child Adjustment in Joint-Custody Versus Sole-Custody Arrangements: A Meta-Analytic Review – Dr. Robert Bauserman
  • Lay Judgments About Child Custody After Divorce – Dr. William Fabricus
  • Young Adults’ Perspective on Divorce Living Arrangements – William V. Fabricius and Jeffrey Hall